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If you are a complete beginner who is just getting started, you can start by learning a backend programming language such as Python, Ruby, Java, Go etc. Once you have got the basic to intermediate understanding of the language, learn about the package manager for that language and learn how to install and use external packages into your applications. Learn the basics of some relational database e.g. PostgreSQL and learn how to run simple CRUD operations. Optionally, you can pick up and learn a web framework for the language of your choice as well. Learn how to build a simple RESTful API and implement simple Authentication/Authorization into it. While you are learning all the items mentioned above, don't forget to learn about Git and GitHub as well.
After following all the instructions above, you can start applying for the entry level backend developer jobs. Also, look at the backend developer roadmap above to get an idea about the landscape and see what else you are missing. A degree in computer science or related field is not always necessary but networking, building a portfolio and actively seeking internships, junior developer positions or consulting can help to start and advance a career as a backend developer.
Note: remember to make a lot of projects while you are learning to solidify your understanding of the concepts. Also, it's important to have the attitude of continuous learning to improve your skills and be prepared for the fast-paced technology evolution in the industry.
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