Knowing the basics of internet and how it works is the key knowledge that every developer must have. In this article accompanied with an introductory series of short videos about internet from code.org you will learn the basics of internet and how everything works. After going through this article, you will be able to answer the below questions:
Internet, at its simplest, is a global network of computers connected to each other which communicate through a standardized set of protocols.
In the video below Vint Cerf, one of the "fathers of the internet" explains the history of how the internet works and how no one person or organization is really in charge of it.
Information on the internet moves from computer to another in the form of bits. The medium for this transfer can be wires e.g. ethernet wires that you might have seen in your homes, it can be transferred in the form of light or fiber optic cables, also we can use wireless mediums.
In the video linked below, you will learn about the different mediums for data transfer on the internet and the pros and cons for each.
Now that you know about the physical medium for the data transfer over the internet. It's time to learn about the protocols involved or how does the information reach from one computer to another in this massive global network of computers.
In the video below, you will get a brief introduction to IP, DNS and how these protocols make the internet work.
Information transfer on the internet from one computer to another does not need to follow a fixed path; infact, it may change paths during the transfer. This information transfer is done in the form of packets and these packets may follow different routes depending upon certain factors.
In this video, you will learn about how the packets of information are routed from one computer to another to reach the destination.
HTTP is the standard protocol using which the webpages are transferred over the internet. The video below is a brief introduction to HTTP and how the browsers load the websites for you.
Cryptography is what keeps our communication secure on the internet, in this short video you will learn the basics of cryptograpy, SSL and TLS and how they help make the communication on the internet secure.
In this video, you will learn about the basics of cybersecurity and common cybercrimes
And that wraps it up for this article. To learn more about the internet, Kamran Ahmed has a nice little guide on DNS: How a website is found on the Internet. Also go through the episodes of howdns.works and read this cartoon intro to DNS over HTTPS.