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MongoDB Basics

MongoDB is a popular NoSQL database system that stores data in Flexible JSON-like documents, making it suitable for working with large scale and unstructured data.

  • Database: Stores all your collections within a MongoDB instance.
  • Collection: A group of related documents, similar to a table in a relational database.
  • Document: A single record within a collection, which is stored as BSON (Binary JSON) format.
  • Field: A key-value pair within a document.
  • _id: A unique identifier automatically generated for each document within a collection.

Basic Operations

  • Insert: To insert a single document, use db.collection.insertOne(). For inserting multiple documents, use db.collection.insertMany().
  • Find: Fetch documents from a collection using db.collection.find(), and filter the results with query criteria like {field: value}. To fetch only one document, use db.collection.findOne().
  • Update: Update fields or entire documents by using update operators like $set and $unset with db.collection.updateOne() or db.collection.updateMany().
  • Delete: Remove documents from a collection using db.collection.deleteOne() or db.collection.deleteMany() with query criteria.
  • Drop: Permanently delete a collection or a database using db.collection.drop() and db.dropDatabase().

Indexes and Aggregations

  • Indexes: Improve the performance of searches by creating indexes on fields within a collection using db.collection.createIndex() or build compound indexes for querying multiple fields.
  • Aggregations: Perform complex data processing tasks like filtering, grouping, transforming, and sorting using aggregation operations like $match, $group, $project, and $sort.

Data Modeling

MongoDB’s flexible schema allows for various data modeling techniques, including:

  • Embedded Documents: Store related data together in a single document, which is suitable for one-to-one or one-to-few relationships.
  • Normalization: Store related data in separate documents with references between them, suitable for one-to-many or many-to-many relationships.
  • Hybrid Approach: Combine embedded documents and normalization to balance performance and storage needs.

In conclusion, MongoDB’s flexible and feature-rich design makes it a powerful choice for modern applications dealing with large scale and unstructured data. Understanding the basics of MongoDB can help you effectively use it as your data storage solution.

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