Understanding IP Terminology is essential in grasping the fundamentals of networking and cybersecurity. In this section, we’ll cover essential terms in the world of IP networks.
Internet Protocol (IP)
IP is a protocol that enables data exchange between computers over a network. Each device in the network has a unique IP address, enabling data packets to be sent correctly.
IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4: It’s the fourth version of IP, using 32-bit addresses and allowing a total of about 4.3 billion unique addresses.
IPv6: To overcome the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses, IPv6 was introduced. It expands the number of unique addresses by using 128-bit addresses, providing a virtually limitless pool of addresses.
An IP address is a unique identifier for devices on the internet or a local network. It helps in routing the data packets between different devices in the network.
A subnet is a smaller, designated portion of a network. Subnet masks help to define and isolate each subnet to manage traffic.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
DHCP is a protocol that assigns IP addresses dynamically to devices when they connect to a network, as opposed to static IP addresses.
DNS (Domain Name System)
DNS is the system responsible for translating human-readable domain names like www.example.com into IP addresses so that data can be routed correctly.
A port is a communication endpoint within a networking device. It allows the device to differentiate multiple connections and applications. Protocols, such as HTTP and FTP, have assigned default ports (80 and 21, respectively).
NAT (Network Address Translation)
NAT allows multiple devices in a private network to share a single public IP address when connecting to the internet. This conserves the number of IP addresses and adds an additional layer of privacy.
A firewall is a security measure that filters, monitors, and controls incoming and outgoing traffic in a network. It helps to protect devices and data from unauthorized access or malicious activities.
By understanding these IP terminologies, you’ll be better equipped to handle networking and cybersecurity tasks.