Basics of Subnetting

Subnetting is the process of dividing an IP network into smaller sub-networks called subnets. It allows better allocation of IP addresses and provides better organization, control, and security for the network. Here we go through some of the basic concepts of subnetting and why it’s crucial for cybersecurity.

IP Addresses and Subnet Masks

An IP address is a unique identifier for devices on a network. It consists of two parts: the network address and the host address. The network address indicates the network to which a device belongs, while the host address identifies the specific device within that network.

Subnet masks are used to define which portion of an IP address is the network address and which is the host address. For example, in the IP address, and subnet mask, the network address is, and the host address is 5.

Why Subnetting?

Subnetting has several advantages, including:

Subnetting Process

The process of subnetting involves the following steps:


Let’s suppose we have the network with a subnet mask of We want to create four smaller subnets. Here’s how we can do it:

Understanding the basics of subnetting is essential to properly configuring and securing your network. By efficiently dividing your network into smaller subnets, you can optimize performance, organization, and security.