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Twelve-Factor Apps

The Twelve-Factor App is a methodology for building scalable and maintainable software-as-a-service (SaaS) applications. It is based on a set of best practices that were identified by the authors of the methodology as being essential for building modern, cloud-native applications.

The Twelve-Factor App methodology consists of the following principles:

  • Codebase: There should be a single codebase for the application, with multiple deployments.
  • Dependencies: The application should explicitly declare and isolate its dependencies.
  • Config: The application should store configuration in the environment.
  • Backing services: The application should treat backing services as attached resources.
  • Build, release, run: The application should be built, released, and run as an isolated unit.
  • Processes: The application should be executed as one or more stateless processes.
  • Port binding: The application should expose its services through port binding.
  • Concurrency: The application should scale out by adding more processes, not by adding threads.
  • Disposability: The application should be designed to start and stop quickly.
  • Dev/prod parity: The development, staging, and production environments should be as similar as possible.
  • Logs: The application should treat logs as event streams.
  • Admin processes: The application should run admin/maintenance tasks as one-off processes.

The Twelve-Factor App methodology is widely adopted by developers of SaaS applications, and it is seen as a best practice for building cloud-native applications that are scalable, maintainable, and easy to deploy.

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